Saturday, August 20, 2011

Dermatologic Conditions Which Affect Skin And Oral Mucosa.......With Pdf Download.

Oral Features of Mucocutaneous Disorders
Desquamative gingivitis is a clinical feature of a variety of diseases. It is characterized by epithelial desquamation, erythema, ulceration, and/or the presence of vesiculobullous lesions of gingiva and other oral tissues. This phenomenon can be a manifestation of a number of dermatoses, most commonly lichen planus, cicatricial pemphigoid (benign mucous membrane pemphigoid), and pemphigus vulgaris (Tables 1 and 2). Biopsy specimens obtained from mucosal lesions may sometimes provide equivocal histopathologic findings and are often inadequate as a single examination to establish the correct diagnosis because several diseases can produce a subepithelial blister. Therefore, direct immunofluorescence examination is necessary to establish a definitive diagnosis. Oral lesions may occur first or very early in several mucocutaneous disorders. Accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of these lesions may greatly diminish or reverse disease progression.

Lichen planus is a relatively common dermatologic disease that affects the skin and mucous membranes, including the oral cavity. Although the etiology of lichen planus is unknown, its immunologic features suggest a cell-mediated immune response to intraepithelial antigens. Lichen planus generally develops between the ages of 40 and 70, and it is more common in females than males. Skin and oral lesions of lichen planus in children are rare but have been reported. Oral manifestations occur in approximately 2.0% of the general population, while cutaneous lesions occur in 0.4%.14 Ten percent to 20% of patients with lichen planus demonstrate oral as well as cutaneous lesions.

Intraoral features of lichen planus include reticular, papular, plaque-like, atrophic, ulcerative, and bullous lesions. The reticular pattern occurs most frequently and is often seen as white lace-like lesions located bilaterally on the buccal mucosa. The reticular, plaque-like, and papular forms are generally asymptomatic and may require no treatment. Patients with these types of lesions may report a change in surface texture or roughness in the area that is affected. The atrophic, ulcerative, and bullous forms of the disease are referred to as erosive lichen planus. It is usually the onset of erosive lesions that motivates patients to seek treatment.
Patients often present with a combination of painful erosive lesions in conjunction with white lesions. Patients with erosive lichen planus may exhibit desquamative gingivitis and a positive Nikolsky’s sign, characterized by epithelial separation from the underlying connective tissue as a result of minor trauma. A small percentage of patients with lichen planus will experience transient small bullae or vesicles involving the mucosal surfaces.
In addition to the oral cavity, lesions may also be seen on the skin, esophagus, genitalia, and rarely the eyes. Skin lesions occur alone or in combination with intraoral lesions and present as recurrent violaceus, keratotic, pruritic patches. Vulvovaginal-gingival and peno-gingival syndromes refer to a variant of lichen planus that affects the gingiva as well as the genitourinary tract of either men or women.

In lichen planus, as well as other dermatologic diseases affecting the oral mucosa, biopsy specimens are essential in establishing a diagnosis for erosive and plaque-like forms and very helpful for reticular forms.

The histologic features of lichen planus include,
  1. 1.      epithelial acanthosis and hyperkeratosis,
  2. 2.      liquifaction degeneration of the epithelial basal cells,
  3. 3.      saw-tooth rete ridges,
  4. 4.      and a dense, band-like, sub-basilar infiltrate of T lymphocytes.

These classic histologic features are more commonly seen in skin biopsies, while mucosal biopsy specimens are often less distinctive in character. Although immunofluorescence studies of lichen planus do not suggest pathognomonic features associated with the disease, direct immunofluorescence examination may be of value in supporting the diagnosis or ruling out other diseases. A linear or a shaggy deposit of fibrin or fibrinogen at the basement  membrane is often observed in biopsy specimens, which are examined using direct immunofluorescence techniques. In addition, cytoid bodies are commonly seen at the epithelial-connective tissue interface and are thought to represent necrotic keratinocytes. Although the etiology remains elusive, these histologic and immunofluorescence features suggest that the condition represents a cell-mediated autoimmune response to basal keratinocytes that express a foreign or altered self-antigen. This suggestion is supported by recent data which indicate that external substances such as mercury in dental amalgams may induce keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression, increased binding of T cells to  normal keratinocytes, and increased production of TNF-α in vitro.

Lichenoid lesions resembling lichen planus may occur in association with the use of medications, including antimalarial drugs, anti-hypertensives, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Lichenoid lesions demonstrate clinical, histologic, and immunofluorescence patterns similar to idiopathic lichen planus, and they often resolve without recurrence following discontinuation of the identified medication.
Exposure to dental restorative materials and cinnamon flavoring agents has also been reported to induce lichenoid reactions. Lichen planus may be associated with systemic diseases including hypertension and diabetes mellitus as well as hepatitis B and C. Lesions identical to lichen planus are seen in patients with acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease and lupus erythematosus.

Treatment of oral lichen planus requires elimination of potential factors associated with lichenoid reactions, elimination or control of local irritants, and the effective use of therapeutic agents that suppress excessive lymphocyte function. Patients with erosive lichen planus are often successfully treated with corticosteroids. Topically applied medications such as fluocinonide and clobetasol gel, beclomethasone dipropionate spray (inhaler), or dexamethasone mouthrinses are effective in inducing remission of lesions. Short-term tapering doses of systemic corticosteroids such as prednisone or intralesional injections are useful in severe episodes as well as in recalcitrant cases. Although expensive to use, systemic and topically administered  cyclosporin has shown promising results. Recently, topical tacrolimus has been shown to be an effective form of treatment for oral lichen planus. Other medications such as griseofulvin, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, dapsone, retinoids, metronidazole, levamisole, thalidomide, and low molecular weight heparin have shown some treatment efficacy, but evidence based data are lacking. In addition, the potential for significant side effects may limit their use. Periodontists who administer these drugs should be aware of reported side effects and be prepared to take appropriate action should any occur. A physician may need to be involved in diagnosis of associated systemic disease and in provision of systemic therapy. In these circumstances, coordinated follow-up involving both the dentist and physician is important. Although some patients experience complete remission following ther-apy, lichen planus is more often persistent/recurrent in nature and is likely to require periodic retreatment.

Controversy exists regarding the potential for malignant transformation in patients with lichen planus. Some clinical investigations have demonstrated an increased incidence of oral cancer in lichen planus lesions ranging from 0.4% to 5.6%. Others, how-ever, have questioned the validity of histologic features used to establish the initial diagnosis. Some early precancerous (dysplastic) lesions may present with lichenoid features, and create the impression of malignant transformation from preexisting lichen planus lesions. A recent systematic analysis, however,  indicated that individuals with oral lichen planus may have a 10-fold increased risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma when compared to the general population. Regardless of the dispute, it is clear that regular recalls are important to assess the character of recurrent lichen planus or lichenoid lesions, and periodic biopsies are often necessary for areas that do not respond to treatment.
Other Conditions
Mucous membrane pemphigoid

Pemphigus vulgaris
Graft-versus-host disease
Chronic ulcerative stomatitis
Lupus erythematosus
Epidermolysis bullosa
Erythema multiforme
Ectodermal dysplasia


  1. Looking for Dentist in Mesa,AZ? Click to learn why we are best dental implant provider. Dental implants are a beautiful, permanent solution to missing teeth! Call us today! We serve patients all over in Mesa.

  2. The most common symptoms of oral lichen planus are red and swollen insides of the mouth with white webbed and thread like linings. Then there are red patches of tissue, open sores on the inside of the gums, tongue etc. The most common area for these to occur is the inside area of the cheeks. Dentzz states that you might experience sensitivity to spicy and hot food or blunted taste or bleeding when brushing and inflammation. The disease is more common in women and people who have very weak immunity systems. To know more Visit!

  3. I was diagnosed as HEPATITIS B carrier in 2013 with fibrosis of the
    liver already present. I started on antiviral medications which
    reduced the viral load initially. After a couple of years the virus
    became resistant. I started on HEPATITIS B Herbal treatment from
    ULTIMATE LIFE CLINIC ( in March, 2020. Their
    treatment totally reversed the virus. I did another blood test after
    the 6 months long treatment and tested negative to the virus. Amazing
    treatment! This treatment is a breakthrough for all HBV carriers.



+1 this blog

you might also like

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...